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Weight Rebound | Fat Loss Explained | Why Weight Gain can Happen After a Diet (Fat Cell Science) – Thomas DeLauer
A study in the New England Journal of Medicine, hunger-related hormones disrupted by dieting and weight loss can remain at altered levels for at least a year. What this study looked at, however, was whether these changes in hormone levels persist after an individual loses weight – to find out, researchers put 50 overweight or obese men and women on a very low-calorie diet for 10 weeks, then tracked their hormone levels for one year. Blood tests showed that average levels of several hormones (including leptin, ghrelin, and insulin) had changed as a result of the weight loss. As expected, the participants also reported being hungrier – both before and after breakfast – than they had been at the study’s start. At the 10-week mark the participants were allowed to resume a normal diet, but they continued to receive periodic advice from a dietitian and were also encouraged to get 30 minutes of exercise most days of the week. One year later, they’d regained about 12 pounds, on average, and follow-up tests showed that their hormone levels had only partially stabilized – their hunger levels remained elevated as well.
Keto RMR Study:
Study – Long term results on keto- A study published (Feb, 2018) in the journal Nutrition & Metabolism looked to see keto’s effect on permanent weight loss via its effects on RMR. Researchers chose a set of 20 obese patients who followed a low-calorie keto diet in order to induce weight loss (was pretty low calorie; 600-800 kcal) – the subjects lost around 45 lbs each over the course of 4 months. But what they found was that despite the patients’ large weight loss, it didn’t affect the patients’ RMRs in any significant way – there was no significant differences in their basal RMR and no metabolic adaptations occurred.
Study – American Journal of Clinical Nutrition:
Study looked to see if the reduction in energy expenditure persists in persons who have maintained a body-weight reduction of greater than or equal to, 10% for more than 1 year.
Seven trios of subjects were studied and they received a weight-maintaining liquid formula diet of identical composition. Each trio consisted of a subject at usual weight (Wt(initial)), a subject maintaining a weight reduction of greater than or =10% after recent (5-8 week) completion of weight loss (Wt(loss-recent)), and a subject who had maintained a documented reduction in body weight of greater than 10% for more than 1 year (Wt(loss-sustained))
*Sustained weight, recently lost weight, had lost weight and kept it off for over a year*
24-hour total energy expenditure (TEE) was assessed and resting energy expenditure (REE) and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) were measured as well.
TEE, NREE, and (to a lesser extent) REE were significantly lower in the Wt(loss-sustained) and Wt(loss-recent) groups than in the Wt(initial) group. Differences from the Wt(initial) group in energy expenditure were qualitatively and quantitatively similar after recent and sustained weight loss.
Declines in energy expenditure favoring the regain of lost weight persist well beyond the period of dynamic weight loss (2)
1) Hypertrophy and/or Hyperplasia: Dynamics of Adipose Tissue Growth. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2653640/
2) Hirsch J and Batchelor B. (n.d.). Adipose tissue cellularity in human obesity. – PubMed – NCBI. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1085232
3) The role for adipose tissue in weight regain after weight loss. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4371661/
4) Effects of weight gain and weight loss on regional fat distribution. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3396439/
5) Resting metabolic rate of obese patients under very low calorie ketogenic diet. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5816424/
6) Rosenbaum M , et al. (n.d.). Long-term persistence of adaptive thermogenesis in subjects who have maintained a reduced body weight. – PubMed – NCBI. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18842775/
7) Müller MJ and Bosy-Westphal A. (n.d.). Adaptive thermogenesis with weight loss in humans. – PubMed – NCBI. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23404923/
8) Long-Term Persistence of Hormonal Adaptations to Weight Loss | NEJM. (2011, October 26). Retrieved from https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1105816
9) Resting metabolic rate of obese patients under very low calorie ketogenic diet. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5816424/
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